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C'est une sorte de « rêve éveillé ». Sophie found out that Leopold had been living in secret with an Englishwoman called Catherine Thomas. Today, Hugo's work continues to stimulate musicians to create new compositions. 1798) a Eugéne Hugo (nar. The Congress, of which Hugo was the President, proved to be an international success, attracting such famous philosophers as Frederic Bastiat, Charles Gilpin, Richard Cobden, and Henry Richard. The 1848 Revolution made Hugo rebel against his Catholic Royalist education. Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. The death left her father devastated; Hugo was travelling at the time, in the south of France, when he first learned about Léopoldine's death from a newspaper that he read in a café.[61]. The publisher replied with a single ! Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, often using the charcoal from matchsticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. Many of his works have inspired music, both during his lifetime and after his death, including the musicals Les Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris. Le grand bois jaunissant dore seul la colline. [44] He also greatly admired Beethoven, and rather unusually for his time, he also appreciated works by composers from earlier centuries such as Palestrina and Monteverdi. Most large French towns and cities have a street named for him. Analogy also enabled him to conceal the real meaning: A woman's Suisses (Swiss) are her breasts – due to the fact that Switzerland is renowned for its milk. The shortest correspondence in history is between Hugo and his publisher Hurst & Blackett in 1862. A census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic, and he replied, "No. Hugo decided to live in exile after Napoleon III's coup d'état at the end of 1851. They also went to Spain where Joseph governed three Spanish provinces. Vincent van Gogh ascribed the saying "Religions pass away, but God remains", actually by Jules Michelet, to Hugo. Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859, Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel, L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs), which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. She died at the age of 19, in 1843. Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press. ", Hugo's death from pneumonia on 22 May 1885, at the age of 83, generated intense national mourning. Hugo left five sentences as his last will, to be officially published: Je donne cinquante mille francs aux pauvres. He was an atheist republican and considered Napoléon a hero. Rêverie. This page was last changed on 14 September 2020, at 10:47. [1] He describes his shock and grief in his poem À Villequier: Hélas ! He relocated to Brussels, then Jersey, from which he was expelled for supporting a Jersey newspaper that had criticised Queen Victoria. Je demande une prière à toutes les âmes. The school Lycée Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth, Besançon in France. So the abolition of slavery is, at this hour, the supreme goal of the thinkers. [13] Hugo suffered a mild stroke on 27 June 1878. Two days before dying, he left a note with these last words: "To love is to act". The paraders marched for six hours past Hugo as he sat at the window at his house. The author was acutely aware of the quality of the novel and publication of the work went to the highest bidder. Their first child, Léopold (born in 1823), died in infancy. He queried the reaction to the work by sending a single-character telegram to his publisher, asking .mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}?. Lia patro Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo estis generalo en la armeo de Napoleono; lia patrino Sophie Trébuchet estis el burĝa familio de Nantes.Lia infanaĝo pasis precipe en Parizo (elvokita en poemo "Aux Feuillantines"), sed restadoj en Napolo kaj en Hispanujo, pro la oficira profesio de lia patro, influis lin. laissez-moi ! vers le passé tournant un oeil d'envie, L'instant, pleurs superflus ! Sans que rien ici-bas puisse m'en consoler, Oh ! It reflected his interest for society which appeared more often in his later work. Perhaps he also was upset by the frequency with which his work appeared on the Church's list of banned books. Victor Hugo byl třetím synem Josepha Léopolda Sigisberta Huga a Sophie Trébuchetové.Narodil se v roce 1802 v Besançonu a žil ve Francii po většinu svého života. These parliamentary speeches are published in Œuvres complètes: actes et paroles I : avant l'exil, 1841–1851. Liukkonen, Petri (2000). Mismas cosas: The same. A street in San Francisco, Hugo Street, is named for him.[67]. In his youth and under the influence of his mother, he identified as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. It also initially published only the first part of the novel (“Fantine”), which was launched simultaneously in major cities. During the reign of Napoleon III he went into exile. [64], For more than seven years, Léonie d’Aunet, who was a married woman, was involved in a love relationship with Hugo. unconsolable by anything on earth, He produced more than 4,000 drawings in his lifetime, and campaigned for social causes such as the abolition of capital punishment. Some great events marked Hugo's early childhood. Two famous musicians of the 19th century were friends of Hugo: Berlioz and Liszt. In his youth, he called himself as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. On the 27th one of the largest parades in French history was held. While in exile, Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III, Napoléon le Petit and Histoire d'un crime. Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. Political speeches by Victor Hugo: Victor Hugo, My Revenge is Fraternity! His mother was an extreme Catholic Royalist. Their brother, tenor Roberto Alagna, performed in the opera’s premiere in Paris in the summer of 2007 and again in February 2008 in Valencia with Erwin Schrott as part of the Festival international Victor Hugo et Égaux 2008. They met in Châteaubriant, a few miles from Nantes in 1796 and married the following year. The Last Day of a Condemned Man published in 1829 analyses the pangs of a man awaiting execution; several entries of Things Seen (Choses vues), the diary he kept between 1830 and 1885, convey his firm condemnation of what he regarded as a barbaric sentence;[27] on 15 September 1848, seven months after the Revolution of 1848, he delivered a speech before the Assembly and concluded, "You have overthrown the throne. All his life he remained a defender of liberty, equality and fraternity as well as an adamant champion of French culture. I am still exasperated and violent. The last phase of his political career is considered a failure. He married Adèle in 1822, after his mother's death in 1821. Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, statesman and human rights activist. She saved my life in December 1851. While in exile, Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III, Napoléon le Petit and Histoire d'un crime. "[28] His influence was credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva, Portugal, and Colombia. As Hugo's father was an officer, the family moved frequently. Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (The Last Day of a Condemned Man) had a big influence on later writers such as Albert Camus, Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoevsky. C. Pulsoni, "L'orazione di Victor Hugo trasformata in musica". He had been in Brussels since 22 March 1871 when in the 27 May issue of the Belgian newspaper l’Indépendance Victor Hugo denounced the government's refusal to grant political asylum to the Communards threatened with imprisonment, banishment or execution. Victor Hugo. The Hugo family came from Nancy in Lorraine where Victor Hugo's grandfather was a wood merchant. He lived there again in 1872-1873. [20] When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870, the country hailed him as a national hero. Woe to anyone who harms France! From both sides, folly. He became secretly engaged to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher (1803-1868), against his mother's wishes. The house where he stayed in Vianden, Luxembourg, in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum. As he got older he became more liberal and supported republicanism. Victor Marie Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are his most famous poetry collections. He had a casual interest in Spiritualism during his exile (where he participated also in seances), and in later years settled into a Rationalist Deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet between 1848 and 1851. Her husband died as he tried to save her. However, although Hugo believed Catholic dogma to be outdated and dying, he never directly attacked the institution itself. Le grand bois jaunissant dore seul la colline. See more. Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Dai.[11]. He was confident that he would be offered the dictatorship, as shown by the notes he kept at the time: "Dictatorship is a crime. The celebrations began on 25 June 1881, when Hugo was presented with a Sèvres vase, the traditional gift for sovereigns. 208 (2002). Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s, but it would take a full 17 years for Les Misérables, to be realized and finally published in 1862. [42], Hugo's rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869, about religious fanaticism), The Pope (1878, anti-clerical), Religions and Religion (1880, denying the usefulness of churches) and, published posthumously, The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and rationalism as an angel). He describes his shock and grief in his famous poem "À Villequier": Hélas ! This might partly explain why in spite of his deep interest and involvement in political matters he remained silent on the Algerian issue. Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel, Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), published in 1866. In Academiam Francicam anno 1841 cooptatus est. I believe in God. Le Rocher de l'Ermitage dans un paysage imaginaire ("Ermitage Rock in an imaginary landscape"). An apocryphal tale[16] about the shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and his publisher Hurst and Blackett in 1862. [33], Victor Hugo, who said "A war between Europeans is a civil war",[34] was an enthusiastic advocate for the creation of the United States of Europe. Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, often using the charcoal from match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. The pamphlets were banned in France but nonetheless had a strong impact there. Foucher-Hugo Adèle, Victor Hugo raconté par Adèle Hugo, Plon, 1985, 861 p.. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues 1849–1885, Gallimard, 1972, 1014 pp.. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues 1870–1885, 529 p., International Alliance of Libertarian Parties, International Federation of Liberal Youth, Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, "Pairs de France : HUGO Marie-Victor, vicomte Hugo", "Victor Hugo: Les Misérables – From Page to Stage research guide", "Briefest Correspondence: Question Mark? Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are his most famous poetry collections. He left his children a note reading as follows : "J.D. He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian army in 1870, famously eating animals given to him by the Paris zoo. However, he was also becoming more supportive of the Republican form of government and, following the 1848 Revolution and the formation of the Second Republic, was elected to the Constitutional Assembly and the Legislative Assembly. je ne l'ai plus ! Je verrai cet instant jusqu'à ce que je meure, L'instant, pleurs superflus ! Toutes le infos sur Rêverie: texte, critiques, commentaire composé Rêverie, commentaire Rêverie,Rêverie Victor Hugo, Victor Hugo Rêverie Originally pursued as a casual hobby, drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile, when he made the decision to stop writing in order to devote himself to politics. Dante. [7], General Joseph-Leopold Hugo, father of Victor Hugo, Soon Hugo's father was called to Spain to fight the Peninsular War. Despite his popularity Hugo lost his bid for reelection to the National Assembly in 1872. Pieuvre avec les initales V.H., ("Octopus with the initials V.H. However, the novel was not as successful as his previous efforts, and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as Flaubert and Émile Zola, whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972. On 4 September, she drowned in the Seine at Villequier when a boat overturned. Installments of the book sold out within hours, and had enormous impact on French society. Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the National Assembly of France. Homophones are frequent: Seins (Breasts) becomes Saint; Poële (Stove) actually refers to Poils (Pubic hair). He ranked very high in Napoléon's army. Il est axé sur l’opposition entre l’aspect insipide du lieu réel et le désir d'évasion du poète. 23 juillet - Festival Radio France et Montpellier Languedoc Roussillon - classique - concert - opéra La Esmeralda Louise Bertin - direction Lawrence Foster - Orchestre Nationa... "Caodaism : A Vietnamese centred religion", Guernsey’s Victor Hugo International Music Festival, 1867 Caricature of Victor Hugo by André Gill, Translation of Victor Hugo note found in "Hunchback of Notre Dame," french edition, Official site of the Société des Amis de Victor Hugo, Official site of the Festival international Victor Hugo et Égaux, Translation of The legend of Victor Hugo by Paul Lafargue, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Hugo&oldid=7108874, Articles needing additional references from January 2012, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s, but a full 17 years were needed for Les Misérables to be realised and finally published in 1862. Let those who have loved me respect her. Death to the scoundrel!". On 9 April, he wrote in his diary, "In short, this Commune is as idiotic as the National Assembly is ferocious. [65], Hugo gave free rein to his sensuality until a few weeks before his death. The First Republic rose and fell and the First French Empire rose under Napoléon Bonaparte. Vita. She drowned in the Seine at Villequier. Within a brief period, he suffered a mild stroke, his daughter Adèle’s internment in an insane asylum, and the death of his two sons. Scroll down to the Assemblée Constituante 1848 heading and subsequent pages. His legacy has been honoured in many ways, including his portrait being placed on French currency. vers le passé tournant un œil d'envie, From 1830 to 1837 Adèle had an affair with Charles-Augustin Sainte Beuve, a reviewer and writer.[60]. In 1817 he wrote a poem for a competition organised by l’Academie Française, for which he received an honorable mention. [40] When Hugo's sons Charles and François-Victor died, he insisted that they be buried without a crucifix or priest. Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye, fearing it would overshadow his literary work. The avenue where he died, in Paris, now bears his name. Victor Hugo fought a lifelong battle for the abolition of the death penalty as a novelist, diarist, and member of Parliament. what! The book was well received, perhaps due to the previous success of Les Misérables. In 1851, he lived in Belgium, in Brussels.He moved to Jersey in 1852. Voyez les conditions d’utilisation pour plus de détails. To honor the fact that he was entering his eightieth year, one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, statesman and human rights activist.He played an important part in the Romantic movement in France.. Hugo first became famous in France because of his poetry, as well as his novels and his plays. [43], Although Hugo's many talents did not include exceptional musical ability, he nevertheless had a great impact on the music world through the inspiration that his works provided for composers of the 19th and 20th century. Between 1829 and 1840, he published five more volumes of poetry (Les Orientales, 1829; Les Feuilles d'automne, 1831; Les Chants du crépuscule, 1835; Les Voix intérieures, 1837; and Les Rayons et les Ombres, 1840), cementing his reputation as one of the greatest elegiac and lyric poets of his time. Same things). Finally, he was forced into exile because of his political views. In particular, Hugo’s plays, in which he rejected the rules of classical theatre in favour of romantic drama, attracted the interest of many composers who adapted them into operas. She settled in Paris. More than two million people joined his funeral procession in Paris from the Arc de Triomphe to the Panthéon, where he was buried. His work was about many of the political and social problems as well as the artistic trends of his time. He frequented spiritism during his exile (where he participated also in many séances conducted by Madame Delphine de Girardin)[37][38] and in later years settled into a rationalist deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. Où je criai : L'enfant que j'avais tout à l'heure, The novel was not as successful as his previous efforts, and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as Flaubert and Émile Zola, whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. Quoi donc ! ", Hugo & American Anti-Slavery Society 1860, "Victor Hugo's diary tells how Parisians dined on zoo animals", "Bicentenaire de Victor Hugo (1802-2002) - Sénat, French Government", "Vincent van Gogh to Theo van Gogh. Still, the book was well received, perhaps due to the earlier success of Les Misérables. Avenue Victor-Hugo, located in Shawinigan, Quebec, was named to honour him. Hugo died on 22 May 1885 in Paris, France from an infection, aged 83. Hugo was acutely aware of the quality of the novel, as evidenced in a letter he wrote to his publisher, Albert Lacroix, on 23 March 1862, "My conviction is that this book is going to be one of the peaks, if not the crowning point of my work. Victor would later write about his brief stay here quoting "C’était un palais de marbre...". Je veux être enterré dans leur corbillard. Installments of the book sold out within hours and had enormous impact on French society. Your prayer knows its way better than you do". "), 1866. When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) grabbed complete power in 1851, establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France. Oh ! On the nomination of King Louis-Philippe, Hugo entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France in 1845, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice, and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. Oh ! [8], In 1811 the family joined their father in Spain, Victor and his brothers were sent to school in Madrid at the Real Colegio de San Antonio de Abad while Sophie returned to Paris on her own, now officially separated from her husband. No. Les Misérables, Random House Publishing Group, 2000, 1280 pages. Victor-Marie Hugo : écrivain, dramaturge, poète, homme politique, académicien et intellectuel engagé, né le 26 février 1802 à Besançon et mort le 22 mai 1885 à Paris. In Les Misérables, he calls the huntsman's chorus in Weber's Euryanthe, "perhaps the most beautiful piece of music ever composed". If he added t.n. La rêverie est une modification de l'état de veille d'un individu sous la forme d'un détachement mental momentané de son environnement réel immédiat. Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with color. This was only shortly after her marriage. Despite their respective affairs, they lived together for nearly 46 years until she died in August 1868. laissez-moi ! Hubert Juin: Victor Hugo, tome 1: 1802-1843 (Flammarion, 1992) ISBN 2-08-064978-7 In this poem, he describes visiting her grave. Hugo himself considered it to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice, Les Misérables. Victor Hugo learned a lot from these travels. In Havana, Cuba, there is a park named after him. Hugo published his first novel the year following his marriage (Han d'Islande, 1823), and his second three years later (Bug-Jargal, 1826). In the city of Avellino, Italy, Victor Hugo briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale, when reuniting with his father, Leopold Sigisbert Hugo, in 1808. (Adèle's biography inspired the movie The Story of Adele H.) His wife Adèle had died in 1868. He was born in 1802, in Besançon (in the Doubs department). Napoléon became Emperor two years after Hugo's birth. Report of the proceedings of the second general Peace Congress, held in Paris on the 22nd, 23rd, and 24 August 1849. Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo; the official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Cosette's song in Les Misérables. Robert C. Glenn, « La Chronologie des Orientales de Victor Hugo », PMLA, Dec 1940, n° 55 (4), p. 1180-90. In 1849, he broke with the conservatives when he gave a noted speech calling for the end of misery and poverty. He finally settled with his family at Hauteville House in Saint Peter Port, Guernsey, where he would live in exile from October 1855 until 1870. Hugo was on vacation when Les Misérables was published. It is a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France. Hugo married Adèle Foucher in October 1822. It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page, or during Spiritist séances, to access his unconscious mind, a concept only later popularised by Sigmund Freud. (Adèle's biography inspired the movie The Story of Adele H.) His wife Adèle had died in 1868. Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. The Hague, between about Wednesday, 13 & about Monday, 18 December 1882", "Mercredi 23 juillet – 20h – Opéra Berlioz / Le Corum", "Victor Hugo's House in Pasaia – European Romanticisms in Association", "Caodaism: A Vietnamese-centred religion", http://www.miniweb.com.br/Literatura/Artigos/imagens/victor_hugo/face_oculta.pdf, Guernsey's Victor Hugo International Music Festival, Study of Victor Hugo for 'Le panorama du siècle', (Panorama of the Century), Translation of The legend of Victor Hugo by Paul Lafargue, The Century Was Two Years Old : Victor Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame: Topsy Turvy Games, Disney's Animated Storybook: The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Les Misérables: Highlights from the Motion Picture Soundtrack, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Hugo&oldid=996525260, 19th-century French dramatists and playwrights, Members of the Chamber of Peers of the July Monarchy, Members of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Members of the National Legislative Assembly of the French Second Republic, Writers who illustrated their own writing, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He shares a crypt within the Panthéon with Alexandre Dumas, père and Émile Zola. [19] Thereafter, he became increasingly involved in French politics. c'est l'heure où l'horizon qui fume Cache un front inégal sous un cercle de brume, L'heure où l'astre géant rougit et disparaît. The pamphlets were banned in France, but nonetheless had a strong impact there. C'est le cas dans les histoires passionnelles où l'amour est impossible. Outside France, his most famous works are the novels Les Misérables, 1862, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (French: Notre-Dame de Paris), 1831. On 25 September 1870 during the Siege of Paris (19 September 1870 – 28 January 1871) Hugo feared the worst. [30], During the Paris Commune – the revolutionary government that took power on 18 March 1871 and was toppled on 28 May – Victor Hugo was harshly critical of the atrocities committed on both sides. Crépuscule ("Twilight"), Jersey, 1853-1855. Despite his personal loss, Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. He relocated to Brussels, then Jersey, and finally settled with his family on the channel island of Guernsey at Hauteville House, where he would live in exile until 1870. ... RÊVERIE. c’est l’heure où l’horizon qui fume Cache un front inégal sous un cercle de brume, L’heure où l’astre géant rougit et disparaît. […] Now overthrow the scaffold. [32] This caused so much uproar that in the evening a mob of fifty to sixty men attempted to force their way into the writer's house shouting "Death to Victor Hugo! Additionally, Hugo's beautiful poems have attracted an exceptional amount of interest from musicians, and numerous melodies have been based on his poetry by composers such as Berlioz, Bizet, Fauré, Franck, Lalo, Liszt, Massenet, Saint-Saëns, Rachmaninoff, and Wagner.[49]. Avenue Victor-Hugo, in Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada, was named to honor him. It is popular worldwide, has been adapted for cinema, television and stage shows. I don't have her any more!". In 1848, Hugo was elected to the National Assembly of the Second Republic as a conservative. The initials S.B. I wish to be buried in their hearse. British Railways perpetuated this memorial, naming Class 92 Electric Unit 92001 after him. At the time, Hugo was only twenty years old. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972. [35] On 14 July 1870 he planted the "oak of the United States of Europe" in the garden of Hauteville House where he stayed during his exile on Guernsey from 1856 to 1870.

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